* Description: Knowledge of network topology, such as bus, ring, star, and mesh
* Compatiablity: RDBMS 11g, 12c
* Date: 09:54 PM EST, 05/07/2017

<1> Network Topology - refers to the layout of connected devices. Topology remains an important part of network design theory:
     |__ o. Bus .................. 1) Every workstation is connected to a main cable called the bus. 
                                      Therefore, each workstation is directly connected to every other workstation in the network.
                                   2) Very easy to connect a computer or peripheral to a linear bus. Shorter cable, less cost.
                                   3) Heavy network collistion to cause data packet loss.
         o. Ring ................. 1) the workstations are connected in a closed loop configuration. Adjacent pairs of workstations are directly connected. 
                                   2) Other pairs of workstations are indirectly connected, the data passing through one or more intermediate nodes.
                                   3) Easy to configure when add or delete one node. Performance is better than a bus model. Central management device is not needed for extra cost.
                                   4) Disadvantage: if the ring cable got disconnected in one place, whole network will down.
         o. Star ................. 1) There is a central computer or server to which all the workstations are directly connected. 
                                      Every workstation is indirectly connected to every other through the central computer.

         o. Tree ................. 1) Two or more star networks connected together. The central computers of the star networks are connected to a main bus. 
                                      Thus, a tree network is a bus network of star networks.
         o. Mesh ................. 1) Employs either of two schemes, called full mesh and partial mesh. In the full mesh topology, each workstation is connected directly to
                                      each of the others. In the partial mesh topology, some workstations are connected to all the others, and some are connected only to those 
                                      other nodes with which they exchange the most data.

<3> Reference:
     |__ http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/network-topology